The following is taken from a September 1961 catalogue issued by MARPLES  for USA consumption.  So, up to this date MARPLES were stating that ALL gouges andchisels are 'hand-forged.' 

BUT  hand-forgedcan include the handling of red hot steel into an automatic hammer, as opposed to the automatic systems employed recently,  [wherein no 'hand' is actually employed].  'Hand-Forged' could then be legally used. But it is stretching the use of the English Language somewhat!

I also note that 'Good to the last inch' or 'edge to trademark' has been sacrificed for a larger description that the 'entire length of the tool can be honed'.  

The Oval 'Splitproof'  Handles [#373] were in full swing as well as the smaller Harlequin Handled B/E chisel [#388] as found here [below] which was introduced in 1968.

The 1873 catalogue lists ' Bevelled Edge ' chisels both in Firmer and Paring Chisels and again with the option of being supplied handled or not. But there are again no details as to what shape/style of handle could be supplied.  I can therefore conclude that the move to manufacture a 'Bevelled Edge ' chisel started around 1870, but this is always a hard date to establish.

Prior to this time you may find many firmer chisels that have been owner modified by grinding  a small 'bevel' back from each side of the cutting edge.  It is probably these workmen who suggested to the manufacturers that  'Bevelled Edge chisels' may be good practical items to produce.

Photos Left are of #310 Firmer Chisels, but of very different years and quality.  All Ash handled.

To the right are some  HARLEQUIN chisels  #388, which illustrate that the 'colour' did not denote any specific size.

Above are shown the 2 pages of chisels from the IRWIN catalogue of Jan 1st 2006, indicating 'Made in England' on the products.

To the left are examples of M750, Splitproof Pro Bevel Edge Chisel with Soft Grip Handle.

Note: The name on the handle is 'Marples', but the 2006 catalogue shows it as 'IRWIN Marples'.

These chisels may therefore be from c.2004

Some 'MODERN' Chisels​... that you will mostly find today.

The earlier chisels made by MARPLES have the etching shown below on the blade and the SEOVAL {semi-oval} MARPLES mark in the handle.

By 1909 there are 22 pages devoted to chisels and gouges. The handles then available were the same as 1903 but there is listed a blade that I have never seen...Round Back Cabinet Firmer Chisel[Item #330].  It must have been short lived.

The 2 photos Left are of #370 Ash handled B/E chisels from around 1986, showing short non-brass ferrules, tapered necks and the same size handles throughout the size range.

Some of the more common MARPLES chisels found today:

The set below is named as M555R, clearly made by RECORD MARPLES. but I have yet to find out when they were produced and then discontinued.  The 555 number was used for so many chisels in the 80s and 90s. But this set with Grey plastic edge protectors is probably around 2001 ​as these protectors were phased out around 2002 in favour of unmarked Black plastic guards and then unmarked Black plastic guards with an open-toe on the top surface,  as shown to the right above]

The 1862 catalogue [2 pages shown here] does indeed show and list Cast Steel Firmer Chisels, but not bevelled edged chisels [see later].   At this time they were sold ranging from 1/16" to 3" wide,  and were also offered 'handled'. [but which shape handle is not specified]    Ditto here for the Gouges(<2.5").     Strong Firmer Chisels and gouges are shown, as well as 'sets of chisels and gouges'. CAST STEEL Coach Makers Chisels and long thin paring chisels are shown as well as CAST STEEL Millright's Chisels and Gouges.  From that time onwards the list offered of chisels gets ever larger and more complex. 

After around 2006 Irwin Marples moved chisel production to China.

If this set is in your workshop, I feel sorry for you because there are so many good but older real MARPLES chisels available,if you would but look.

The above discourse should have given you the resources to do just that.

By 1954  the 'Round'  [Transparent Amber] "Splitproof" plastic handled Butt chisels  had made an entrance, in  B/E Firmer (876) style. [Numbered 2031 for a short while, then renumbered 386 in 1959 onwards].

This page is dated Sept 1958

Here is where I will try to show a variety of the unusual chisels that were offered by MARPLES over the years: 

The above images are of the M777/S5.  

A M777/S6 set was introduced in 1988 with the 1/1/4" chisel included.

In 1968 the 'BLUE CHIP' handled B/E chisels #444 and gouges had been introduced, followed in 1971 by the #333 Firmer chisel. It is shown here that ' In co-operation with the European Tool Committee, Marples Wood Chisels are marked in inches and millimetres '.

'Metrication' was introduced across many walks of life in Britain on 15 Feb 1971. and this page is from 1971.

The chisel to the left is a #133 Cast Steel Socket Mortice chisel  c 1873

The M500B set shown [Right] is marked MADE IN SHEFFIELD  ENGLAND  and came in widths up to 2".  Another set  [MS500B] is essentially the same but with a Steel cap on the handle. They both had Impact-Resistant polypropylene core handles. The edge protectors indicate this set was made around 2004 as up to 2002 the protectors were of the fully enclosed variety as shown below on the 2" MS500B  dated  '2002'.

The 1938 Catalogue [below] shows 15 pages devoted to chisels and gouges. There are some additions to the line and some deletions [too numerous to mention here] but in essence the listings follow the 1928 catalogue, only with some price increases.  The only 'Round' neck chisels and gouges are the 'Registered' pattern, the London Pattern Sash Mortise Chisels and the Tanged Butt Chisels.  All the rest, except the Socket style, are square necked.  All the handles are made of  either Ash, Beech or Boxwood with no Plastic in evidence. 

This situation was in effect until at least the March 1940 pocket catalogue.

Blue Ribbon #M555 Blue Handle B/E Firmer chisel

Introduced as a Amateur household style less expensive chisel in c.1986 and lasted until 1991.

Only produced as 1/4"; 1/2"; 3/4" and 1".

Note the differences in the necks [above] of #730 Sash Mortise Chisel [#731/#732 handled] and the London-Pattern Sash Mortise Chisel [#736/#737 handled]

Below is the real survivor, the Iron Hooped Registered Round Neck Mortise Chisel #601 with a c1980s example.

Below you will see the amended page showing all Round Neck.   Dated March 1957 {Compare with above}

Made in China to Marples' product specifications. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Here you will find a table [below] that shows the Mortise chisels that were produced from 1909 onwards arranged according to item number.  You will see that sometime between 1909 and the next Catalogue (1928) many styles were discontinued leaving a bare minimum to soldier on. The backbone of these survivors were certainly #601, #706, #736, #737

Below is the 1909 page showing the un-handled blades and to the right below, examples of the handled products(different numbers)

Below.  At this time (9/61) the Paring Gouges and Paring Chisels are still shown as having Square necks.

From the 1909 Catalogue [below] come the following excerpts, the whole range of tools available was too extensive to cover here.  Naturally these chisels and gouges were also available in 'Paring' style and also a cranked variety of the latter. The shear volume of different tools each engineered for different trades is overwhelming and you can only really grasp this fact by looking through the catalogues. What I can present here is but a very thin slice of information.

But of course I have now bought a Blue Chip chisel that has a handle marking that I can only try to slot into the dating order.

The blade marks are as shown immediately above except the mm. size is in line with the wording. My example is too feint to photo.

It also has a Grey plastic edge keeper. As you can see the mark is a surface application, not pressed into the handle.

The #370 Chisels shown Right are obviously from an earlier time.

MARPLES      Chisel Points to consider:

I have observed that the older chisels c.1900 tended to have longer brass ferrules than were later used and were more accurately fitted to the wood handle such that they did not require a punched indentation in the brass to hold the ferrule in place. 

The older chisels [<c.1893] did not indicate ENGLAND only that they were made in SHEFFIELD.

This being due to the Merchandise Marks Act 1887 & 1891 which, in essence, stated that all tools produced or imported into England had to have the Country of Origin impressed onto the tool.

Prior to this date 'Wm. MARPLES & Sons, Sheffield' had been quite adequate.  So this is a way of dating antique English tools.  If there is no Country of Origin on the tool, then it may well be prior to 1891 in age.   BUT I have found this to be not totally adhered to 7/2018.

I have found that many of the later Boxwood handled chisels tend to have split/cracked ferrules and I can only surmise that this may have something to do with the over drying of the boxwood, as the boxwood must have expanded after manufacture.

Just when the chisel neck was changed from a square profile to a round profile is hard to discern but I estimate that this might have been around1955.

The round neck was then changed to a tapered neck around1985.  [But gradually phased in on different models]

The plastic edge guards may indicate whether the chisels are real MARPLES.  The earlier guards were totally rectangular in section and were marked   'Wm.Marples & Sons Sheffield' on one side. They came in many different colours: Light Blue, Pink/Grey, Salmon, Translucent, Red, Black, creamy Green, Sky Blue, translucent Red + others. The later versions were sloped down to the cutting edge and marked 'marples england on one side and the sides were ribbed. These guards seem to be Blue until c.1993 and then were Grey thereafter until c.2002 and when Irwin took over a totally different [generic] Black guard was used.

Ferrules were cheapened by making them shorter and then not even from real Brass..see below Left....These #222 Carver Ash handled B/E Firmers were made around1995. 

They all have the same size handles for many different widths, shortened non -brass ferrules and no makers mark inscribed on the blade.

'Splitproof' Firmer [313] 1954-1998 or B/E Firmer [373] 1954-2006+

This is the famous Red/Yellow plastic handled chisel that we all love, except that all points noted above on the 'Blue-Chip' apply here. Some of these offerings that you may find on the internet look like they have been rolled in a Cement mixer!  I believe that Irwin manufactured the B/E chisels in Sheffield after their takeover of RECORD in 1998 until at least 2006, and these were marked on the blade  'MADE INSHEFFIELD  ENGLAND',  but soon after,  the manufacture was exported away to cheaper manufacturing countries. Be aware that the Irwin Marples made out East offerings may have but a light electro-etching of their name on the blade which can easily be rubbed out to make the chisel appear like a real MARPLES.   [The handle is still simply marked MARPLES]  

Neither these or the Blue Chip chisels were intended to be 'Fine Woodwork' chisels.  They are every day 'user' chisels intended for the Trades.  They have no 'feel' or balance, as all the chisels (1/4"-2") have the same size but heavy handle.  As the Catalogue picture below shows the Hefty Oval handle allows a larger striking surface .  You also can see below that with every change of 'Ownership' the packaging also had to be changed.   Most confusing.   By 1988 the 'tapered' neck had also been introduced into this line.

In 1986 MARPLES decided that they would draw enthusiasts back to the fold by introducing a throwback chisel. This was the #777Rosewood handled B/E chisel. [ 1/8"-1.1/2"]

Note the truncated brass ferrules, they would have saved at least 5p each ferrule over installing a real good old length one!   They lasted until c. May 1991.

The above scan is from the Record Marples Price List of 1st. March 1986

The next text which I have available is the 1897 catalogue, and here are shown about 10 pages of bench chisels and gouges that could be supplied with/without  Round Ash / Beech / Boxwood Handles; Boxwood Carving Pattern Handles; London Pattern Octagon Boxwood Handles or Taper Octagon Boxwood Handles  (see right [7555] these were only offered for a short period of time). There are simply just too many varieties and combinations of chisels and gouges to list here.


Can you now see how utterly confusing these takeovers have on dating etc.?

This chisel has definitely an older style marking, but is contained in a later style plastic wallet.

A beautiful set [left] of 6  B/E Oval Split-proof Handled chisels.  373/S6

In the March 1957 Pocket Cat.  these 2 adverts appear advising that MARPLES chisels are good to the last inch as they have been "Hardened and Tempered from edge to trademark."

{I have no idea who was this fine ' Churchill ' type figure!}

In the 1864 and 1873 Catalogues is listed [but not shown] a No. 115Cast SteelMillrights' chisel available 1/4"- 3"wide. [Although it is not numbered in 1864.]  

But in the 1897  Catalogue it is available as 1/8"-2.1/2" wide and is then named 'Cast Steel Registered Chisel' with 'two Bright Iron Ferrules'.  By the 1909 Catalogue the number has been changed to No. 600 and still showing the same sizes and each still having TWO steel ferrules. It is not shown or listed in the 1921 Catalogue, having being discontinued in favour of other similar chisels, but this chisel was the only one having a short thick neck and a square Bolster. [Most other chisels had either a round Bolster or an 8 sided hand-forged Bolster.]

The next catalogue that I have [below] is just post-war 1954 and this shows that a 'Splitproof' Amber Plastic handle had been introduced, and was also offered on the Round neck B/E Butt chisel. [This handle was all Amber, not the later Red/Orange} At this stage you will see that the 'Round ' neck B/E chisel has arrived, but the 'Square' neck Firmer chisel is still available...if we can believe the cat. images to be correct.   Yet, in the same cat. there is shown a Chisel Display Stand that depicts B/E Firmer chisels with Square necks! 

I therefore suggest that the Round Neck Chisel/Gouge was probably the only variety produced after c1952/3 and that the Square neck [Hammer forged?] had been replaced by the Drop Forged Round Neck because of production costs.  [But see later for a MARPLES contradiction]

Throughout this treatise please note the variation in spelling:  'Mortise' and 'Mortice'. Which do you think is 'correct'?

To the left is a set of recent #773 Splitproof Sash Mortice Chisels, spelt with a C again!!   Note that the handles are rotated 90 degrees for ease of Morticing[Mortising?], differentiating these from Regular Firmer Chisels, where the names on the handle are in line with the top/bottom chisel surfaces.

The set to the Right is numbered M500 S6 and was made by Record Marples probably c2000.  Note the word  'Record' in the flimsy plastic tray. [You will always find the tray cracked/split].  This set would have been boxed, as above.


​I really should address this important section to deal with the chisels that shaped our country, and many more, namely the much abused Mortise Chisel.  This style of chisel is rarely used today, outside teaching schools, having been supplanted by Drill press style Mortising Machines or other wood joints that rely on modern adhesives.

So I will expand this section based upon history.

Even in 1861 the following MortiCe Chisels were listed in the MARPLES catalogue:

Common Mortice Chisels                                1/8" - 1"

Best Joiners' and Cabinet Mortice Chisels.      1/8" - 1"

Cast Steel     ditto          ditto                            1/8" - 1" 

Improved Sash Mortice  Chisels,  all steel.      3/8" - 5/8"

Socket      ditto   ditto       ditto                        1/4" - 1"

Cast Steel Socket    ditto   ditto                       1/8" - 1"

Lock                     ditto     ditto                        1/2" - 5/8"

Improved Lock     ditto    Tang or Socket.      1/2" - 5/8"

By 1897 the following entries are made in that catalogue, and the name has been changed to MortiSe:

This Rare Blue Chip Set, with included Mallet, probably dates around 2004

​I do not understand the quote 'Since 1898'.

The first question on your mind is.....'When did MARPLES start making Chisels/Gouges ' ?

There were so many chisels/gouges produced by MARPLES and they all had very slight differences that it is difficult to show ALL the varieties here.

Very early chisels, like any older tools, are so extremely rare to find, let alone to own and photograph. At least we know that chisels marked HIBERNIA and with the Trifoil are from 1875 onwards.  But to find no marks, or at least to find the marks HIBERNIA and a single Shamrock is very hard to date.

The earliest 'catalogue' of c.1846 makes no mention of any chisels or gouges being for sale (see the catalogue section), so therefore MARPLESmay have started making these very important, but basic tools  around 1850, when it was considered a viable financial proposition.  Remember, William was not a man to takes risks on a venture that could not be profitable because, by all accounts, he was an astute businessman and at this time he would have been competing against the likes of James CAM and other edge tool makers who were well established in these lines.

Also shown is the Red/Yellow Oval  "Splitproof Handle" chisels in sets of 5 Firmer [313] and 5 B/E Firmer [373]

THE BEST  [above] ....had a round neck, not a Tapered neck, which came later.


Above is the introduction page of a 1993 Wm. Marples Chisels/Gouges catalogue.

Above is a fine example of a #737 London Pattern Sash Mortise Chisel

But in the 10/79 E3 Catalogue [below] they are no longer called 'Continental', just 'Hooped Beechwood'. And now numbered #M371  Confusing!.

This image is from the 1897 Catalogue.

Below is a page from the 1903 Catalogue which shows the choice of chisel handles that were available at that time. The Common Octagon Chisel Handle in Boxwood [7540] is a new addition, but again only lasted a few years.   Please study this picture well, as many are never seen today and may have existed for but a brief period in time. Obviously this would have been due to either the design being uncomfortable to use or maybe just too expensive to produce and therefore to buy. The chisel handle styles I  cannot find readily today are: 7536 - Plain Octagon, Hooped;  7540- Common Octagon; 7555- Taper |Octagon; 7515- Taper Round; 7530- Kensington Pattern and 7535- Plain Octagon Chisel Handle.

Personally I have never seen the 7530-Kensington Pattern Chisel Handle but it looks to be a very comfortable handle.

'Blue Chip' Polypropylene handled Firmer [333] 1971-1998 or B/E Firmer [444] 1968-2006+

​A much abused chisel because of the bad advertising that propelled this item to fame.   [In essence, it is OK to whack it with a hammer!]

This is why you will find them usually very soiled and scuffed due to the fact that this ideology appealed to the 'whack it and get the job done' tradesman, who would then consign the poor creature to its' storage space with an errant toss.  They always had a 'tapered' neck.  They are now still manufactured by Irwin-Marples but you must be careful to only purchase those made in Sheffield, and this is hit or miss.  The very first Irwin-Marples still had 'MADE IN SHEFFIELD' electro etched onto the top of the blade. and the B/E were still produced in Sheffield until 2006.  Very soon after, the whole system was transferred either to Italy or more probably CHINA to be produced there in order to yield more 'profit' for the American Corporation. But I have noticed that the Irwin-Marples Blue Chip Chinese Chisels seem to have a gold coloured  MARPLES emblem on the handle rather than the the previous silver coloured emblem.

What follows is the table form of the chisels and gouges that MARPLES made, starting with the 1909 Catalogue and progressing as far as 1998.  Not being a Computer whiz, I had to scan the tables [in WORD] into a jpeg file and upload to here as an image.  I therefore cannot amend these tables easily.  I had to divide the years up into 1909-Oct 1938 and 1940- 1998. Down the Left side are listed the catalogue numbers and a brief description, but omitting any pre-fixes such as 'M' or 'MR'.  The catalogue dates are across the top. There are some assumptions that I have had to make.  The most important being that should an item appear in [for e.g.] the 1928 catalogue and in the 1938 catalogue, but nowhere in between [in the pocket catalogues], I have concluded that the item was indeed available in between but did not appear in the Pocket Catalogues due to space considerations and popularity of the item.

The Index below is to help you understand the tables:

o  =  noted in that catalogue

-   =  assumed to have been produced at that time.

A  =  Ash

B  =  Beech

S  =  Splitproof

n  =  newly introduced in that year

w  =  withdrawn in that year.

e  =  Export Only

Blank spaces denote that the item was not available in that year

The photo above is from the RECORD RIDGWAY MARPLES Woodcrafting Tools Catalogue dated October 1979

The page here (October 1979) shows the 'tapered' neck of the Blue Chip chisels as well as the Round Neck of the Splitproof chisels. 

So basically if you have a MARPLES Splitproof handled chisel in your possession with a Round Neck, you have an original MARPLES tool, no questions asked.

Manufacturing for Tool Merchants?

Below is the first instance that I have found whereby it is obvious that MARPLES did indeed manufacture tools for specific Tool Merchants and placed the Merchant's name on the tool at the factory.  In this case the Common Octagon Boxwood handled B/E chisel was made for Louis Henry TURTLE of Croydon and has the MARPLESTrefoil impressed alongside. [ TURTLE was a Saw Maker, Cutler and Tool Merchant. (info from Simon BARLEY)]

This chisel would be from around the year 1900.

By 1928 there are 16 pages, but now organised to be more easily read and understood. Mostly everything seems to have been available either handled [with many different types of wood handles.] or without handles.

There are:

Firmer Chisels; Bevel Edge Firmer Chisels;Strong Firmer Chisels; Firmer Gouges; Firmer Gouges In-Cannel; Sash or Scribing Gouges; Long Thin Paring Chisels; Bevel Edge Long Thin Paring Chisels; Long Thin Paring Gouges; Round Neck Registered Chisels; Round Neck Registered Gouges; Millwrights' Chisels; Coachmakers' Chisels; Coachmakers' Bevel-Edge Chisels; Wagon Builders' Chisels;  Mortise Chisels; Sash Mortise Chisels; Lock Mortise Chisels; Machine Mortise Chisels; Socket Chisels; Socket Gouges; Solid-Steel-Blade Socket Chisels; Bright Socket Firmer Chisels; Strong Socket Firmer Chisels; Bright Socket Firmer Gouges; Wheelers' Bruzzes; Butt Chisels; Sash Pocket Chisels; Roller Coverers' Chisels; Floor Cutting Chisels and Drawer Lock Chisels.

The 1928 first 2 pages of Common Chisels and Gouges are shown below:

Right on the cusp of the manufacture being transferred to China, Irwin-Marples produced this 'Blue Chip' chisel [below]. White surface painted Oval MARPLES emblem on the handle along with an impressed picture of a face with goggles. It has a black  plastic washer between handle and neck and a blade inscription as shown, and a black generic edge protector.

Chisels made by RECORD RIDGWAY TOOLS LTD. looked like this [below] with Blue Edge protectors.

Round Ash Firmer [310] 1909-1994 or B/E Firmer [370]  1909-1986.

This chisel endured as the backbone of MARPLES chisel production and was probably around prior to 1909.  You will find them from good quality early chisels to the later less exciting offerings...see below.

Some chisels you may find have a steel ferrule and these may come from the latter parts of  WWII .  I have ONE example that is fitted with an Aluminium ferrule. [And that is the way that it is spelt in Britain!...the 'Periodic Table of Elements' supports the correct spelling.]

The image [right] is of a  2"  #115  c.1890.

Carver Boxwood handled Firmer [317] 1909-1994 or B/E Firmer [377] 1909-1998

Found quite often on a famous Auction site, these chisels can be had once again in various quality states according to year of production.

The very best were the square necked chisel, probably <c.1952.  These would have had a small round MARPLES water transfer applied down close to the brass ferrule.  Again see the degradation over time that this fine chisel suffered, lower Left. [Disgusting ferrules, 'tapered' neck , all same size handles and no Makers mark on the blade.] 

The 'tapered neck' appeared on these chisels around 1985

This chisel[Left] is marked Irwin-Marples and was produced outside of Sheffield around 2006<.         Look at and learn the blade markings​, they will never indicate 'Made in Sheffield'.  

Chisels made by Record-Marples Woodworking Tools Ltd had   SHEFFIELD ENGLAND   etched on the blade and the SEOVAL MARPLES Mark on the handle.  Or may have the Oval MARPLES on the handle with SHEFFIELD ENGLAND etched on the blade. Grey chisel end protectors.

Here [below] is the 'Continental' pattern wood handle that had been introduced into the line. [1954]

Whereas the Marples Made by RECORD   FIRMER chisels seem to have  MADE IN SHEFFIELD  ENGLAND  or HAND FORGED SHEFFIELD  ENGLAND etched on the blade, and the silver Oval 'Marples' emblem was on the handle and may also be etched on the blade, as seen below.


The #373 Splitproof handled chisel was available in the UK 1954-1998<. This was a standard length B/E Firmer chisel.  However in 1962 a 'Continental' Style B/E almost paring chisel was introduced as Item #327 and I believe was renumbered around 1964/5 to Item #323.  I had always thought that the 'Continental' style name was applied to chisels [such as #326] because of the pattern of Beech handle having a top steel thin hoop [see 1965 Catalogue picture]. Apparently this may not be so, as the Item #327 [later #323] was introduced and with an Oval "Splitproof" handle and still listed on page 10 in the 1965 Catalogue as 'Continental'.  These longer chisels do not show up too often in the UK, as they were produced for 'Export Only' [WHY?] and may therefore be rare to find there.

I can find no listing in any of my catalogues of a 'Splitproof' handled Paring chisel.

The blades are not marked.

This same slightly different image is from the 1909 Catalogue. The neck looks thicker.

This photo [Right]  is to show you that from at least 2006  MARPLES chisels were made in CHINA. 

["to Marples product specifications"] 

This is the MS500B chisel which was indeed made in Sheffield [if so marked] until c2006  

​Also see immediately above.

I have noted that the handle could have the following impressions in the plastic:

'Record  Marples'  on both sides and had Electro etched SHEFFIELD ENGLAND on the top of the blade, that had a Tapered neck.

'MARPLES' on one side and the Oval Marples ['WM. MARPLES & SONS  and SHEFFIELD. ENG with Trefoil' ] on the reverse side showed a 'Bahco Record Tools Ltd'. [Tapered neck] or RECORD RIDGEWAY Tools Ltd. [round neck]

'Marples' on both sides indicates a tool made by Record Hand Tools.  and Electro etched  HAND FORGED SHEFFIELD ENGLAND on the top of the blade with a Tapered neck.[bottom photo]